minimum 15-page research proposal for examining the psychological effects of the technological/message variables you have chose to study.Expand to 15 pages based on the information provided.
Research on Social Media Causes Depression in Adolescents Introduction With the in-depth application of the Internet age, young people’s attention to TV, radio, video games, mobile phones, movies, and social media is gradually increasing. The rapid development of Internet technology has brought various risks and benefits. These new technologies have enhanced globalization, such as social media twitter and Instagram, because it allows young people to communicate with other people around the world. In addition, the increased Internet access capabilities through computers and mobile phones enable young people to access information and easily increase their knowledge of many topics. Despite these benefits, young people may still become victims of the adverse influence of the media.
Adolescents spend much more time on social media than other types of entertainment. It makes it easier for young people to come into contact with various scenes in a diversified society and allows them to express dissatisfaction with their current situation. Various researchers have conducted investigations and reached conclusions about media that adversely affect young people’s body image, physical activity, body fat, and sedentary behavior. Based on these influences, this research assumes that the average time adolescents spend on social media platforms is positively correlated with their depression levels. Variables The independent variables in the study will be the type of use of adolescents on social media and digital platforms and the age of the adolescent.
The dependent variables will be the level of depression and the length of outdoor activities investigated by the test. The control variable is the length of time that social media is used. Literature Review Borzekowski and Bayer (2015) reviewed literature on the impact of media on the body image of adolescents. They described body image to be dependent on one’s self-concept and is often considered regarding self-respect and mental health. The research was centered on adolescents because they are the most affected group in terms of dissatisfied body image. They undergo a critical transition period comprised of various physiological changes. They are also the focus of study because of their increased exposure and frequency of use of both the traditional and new media more than the other age groups. Granich et al. (2011) conducted research to determine the effects of usage of electronic media (EM) among children. The pattern of variance of use of electronic media on school days and weekdays was also examined. The electronic media under review were television, videos, computer use and electronic games.
The media has become entangled in our daily lives and has been faulted for increasing mental health problems in children and adolescents. This accusation prompted the systematic review conducted by Keles and McCrae (2020) to assess existing evidence on the effects of social media usage on psychological affliction in youths. These results were contrary to the study conducted by Banjanin et al. (2015) which concluded that depression cannot be caused by social media related activities. The limitation of the evidence that emerged from the proposed correlation of social media usage and depression is that it is limited in explaining the mediating factors contributing to or intensify this presumed relationship. Further research is required to investigate the underlying factors that aid in the investigation of the adverse effects of social media usage on the mental health of some adolescents and not others. Conclusion From different literature reviews, it can be concluded that the media has an adverse effect on adolescents. The people most affected are those most vulnerable and at risk of succumbing to manipulation. The limitation of this research topic is that there is no literature on the positive role of the media in adolescents and children. In addition, the research question that needs to be addressed is: “Why are some adolescent negatively affected by the media, while others are not?”.
The assessment of this issue is crucial because it will help identify the most vulnerable and screen them from adverse effects. The hypothesis that can be used to review the above research questions: adolescents with strong social skills are at a lower risk of being influenced by social media, it may be that strong social skills can increase the time spent outdoors to a certain extent and reduce the time spent on electronic devices. You’ve already identified some relevant literature related to the relationship between social media use and depression.. However, the topic outlined here needs additional work if it is to fulfill the requirements of the Psychology of Emerging Media project. Recall that your intended study needs to consider two media features (either attributes of the message or attributes of the media technology/format) as your independent variables. Age of the user is not such a variable. “Type of use” is also a bit too vague to serve as an IV; more, media use itself is not an aspect of the media message or format. In other words, you need to come up with two IVs that represent aspects of social media use (that is, features of social media message or social media interfaces that you could manipulate) and propose how they would causally influence your dependent variables (DVs). Relatedly, you also need two distinct psychological effects as dependent variables for this assignment.
Depression is a good one to consider. What would be another? In the end, you’ll need to more fully flesh out FOUR variables (two IVs related to the message content or technology/interface, two DVs that are psychological effects) to fulfill assignment requirements. Note – you could still consider age, but for this assignment that would serve as a moderating variable (not as one of your two media IVs). That is, you could consider how the relationship between a given IV and a given DV depends on the user’s age. References Banjanin, N., Banjanin, N., Dimitrijevic, I., & Pantic, I. (2015). Relationship between internet use and depression: Focus on physiological mood oscillations, social networking and online addictive behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 43, 308-312. Borzekowski, D. L., & Bayer, A. M. (2005). Body image and media use among adolescents. Adolesc Med Clin, 16(2), 289-313. Granich, J., Rosenberg, M., Knuiman, M. W., & Timperio, A. (2011). Individual, social, and physical environment factors associated with electronic media use among children: sedentary behavior at home.
Journal of physical activity and health, 8(5), 613-625. Huesmann, L. R. (2007). The impact of electronic media violence: Scientific theory and research. Journal of Adolescent health, 41(6), S6-S13. Keles, B., McCrae, N., & Grealish, A. (2020). A systematic review: the influence of social media on depression, anxiety and psychological distress in adolescents. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25(1), 79-93. Marshall, S. J., Biddle, S. J., Gorely, T., Cameron, N., & Murdey, I. (2004). Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: a meta-analysis. International journal of obesity, 28(10), 1238-1246. Ray, M., & Jat, K. R. (2010). Effect of electronic media on children. Indian paediatrics, 47(7), 561-568. Florin, E., Gross, J., Pfeifer, J., Fink, G. R., & Timmermann, L. (2011). Reliability of multivariate causality measures for neural data. Journal of neuroscience methods, 198(2), 344-358. Keser, H., Eşgi, N., Kocadağ, T., & Bulu, Ş. (2013). Validity and Reliability Study of the Internet Addiction Test. Mevlana International Journal of Education, 3(4). Merten, S., Mlotshwa, L., & Schwarz, J. (2020). Youth, sexuality, gender, and health: dealing with a social phenomenon.
International Journal of Public Health, 65(4), 375-376. Ying, J., Yap, P., Gandhi, M., & Liew, T. M. (2019). Validity and utility of the center for epidemiological studies depression scale for detecting depression in family caregivers of persons with dementia. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 47(46), 323-334. Written Research Proposal (20% of course grade) Technical Requirements • • • • Use 12-point font (Times New Roman). Your paper should be double-spaced. Margins should be 1 inch all around. You must use APA style for the entire paper. Failure to follow APA style will lead to a 10% grade deduction. Please refer to the APA Style Tutorial available at https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/basics7e-tutorial. Important APA style elements to adhere to include: • Style formatting of in-text citations, references, and section headings. • Inclusion of a title page • Inclusion of page numbers in appropriate location • Placing any figures, tables, or appendixes at the end of your written manuscript (not in the main body text) and be appropriately numbered. Figures should include captions; tables and appendixes should be titled. General Guidelines Please use the page lengths below only as a guide.
You may go beyond the page length suggestion if needed depending on the number of relationships you propose. Sections 1. Background/Literature Review A thorough review of prior, related research that provides a solid rationale and theoretical context for the topic of interest, leading up to a clear description of the research questions and/or hypotheses to be examined. In this section, you will include: A description of the emerging media effects issue/problem/concepts that you wish to explore. Rationale for your emerging media effects topic, addressing both the theoretical and practical significance of conducting this investigation. A review of existing literature with a focus on previous findings directly pertinent to your emerging media effects topic. The quality of your literature review will be assessed in three areas. Your literature review must: Organization/Flow Contain useful and informative sections which present clear themes or identifiable trends. Consist of smooth transitions between sections, indicating narrative flow. Note: Your goal is not to list as many articles as possible. Please do not list one study’s findings after another, but rather “tell a story” and display your arguments in a clear and coherent order.
Consider how you would convince someone off the streets about the nature of your proposed emerging media effects and why they matter. Percent Length 50% 8-9 pages Relevance of Findings Incorporate findings from prior emerging media effects research that directly inform your research questions and/or hypotheses. Demonstrate strong, critical, and intellectual abilities in synthesizing relevant information. Note: Your findings must be pertinent to developing your arguments. If you do not convince yourself that certain findings are relevant or strongly support your arguments, this is a sign that the literature you are using may not be useful. Theory Application & Integration of Competing/Complementary Research Demonstrate how the theories you have chosen relate/apply to your study. Provide coherent arguments for the key concepts/variables in your study and their proposed relationships. At the end of your literature review (or within your literature review, depending on the way you choose to “tell the story”), you will clearly present the research goals and expectations of your study in the form of research questions and/or hypotheses. You may also find it useful to include a causal diagram to visually display the relationships between the variables at play (with each arrow corresponding to a particular hypothesis or research question). 2. Method 10% 2 pages 30% 4-5 pages A description of the general method you would employ to test or explore the research questions/hypotheses of interest (e.g., survey, experiment, content analysis, etc.).
In this section, you will include descriptions of: Your sample (e.g., participants) and method of recruitment. How you will measure your key concepts (e.g., existing scales, observational methods, etc.). These measures should be adapted from prior studies that have examined similar concepts. The procedure for collecting data properly and adequately. 3. Discussion An evaluation of the study’s proposed results and a discussion of the study’s potential limitations and implications for future research. In this section, you will include: Theoretical and practical contributions of your potential findings. For example, if you found support for these proposed relationships (hypothetically speaking), how would these findings contribute to emerging media scholarship? In other words, how do these findings help advance our understanding of current emerging media theories? In addition, how would these findings have practical significance for individuals and/or groups in society, the industry, etc.? Limitations (both theoretical and methodological) of your study. Here, you need to highlight the theoretical challenges that your study faces.
What are limitations with regard to the theoretical explanations of your proposed relationship(s)? In addition, what methodological challenges does your study face when testing the proposed relationship(s)? Directions for future research. You must discuss how your study guides future emerging media research. Please make sure to be specific with regard to the particular areas of the psychology of emerging media literature that your study can help direct, emphasizing why these areas are of importance both theoretically and practically. 4. References Include a reference list consisting of the scholarly work you reviewed and cited in your paper (minimum of 12 peer-reviewed journal articles). Make sure that your reference list is alphabetical by the first author’s last name, has a ½ inch hanging indent, double-spaced, and uses correct APA style. 10% N/A 2. Method A description of the general method you would employ to test or explore the research questions/hypotheses of interest (e.g., survey, experiment, content analysis, etc.). In this section, you will include descriptions of: • Your sample (e.g., participants) and method of recruitment.
How you will measure your key concepts (e.g., existing scales, observational methods, etc.). These measures should be adapted from prior studies that have examined similar concepts. • The procedure for collecting data properly and adequately. 3. Discussion An evaluation of the study’s proposed results and a discussion of the study’s potential limitations and implications for future research. In this section, you will include: • Limitations (both theoretical and methodological) of your study. Here, you need to highlight the theoretical challenges that your study faces. What are limitations with regard to the theoretical explanations of your proposed relationship(s)? In addition, what methodological challenges does your study face when testing the proposed relationship(s)? • Directions for future research. You must discuss how your study guides future emerging media research. Please make sure to be specific with regard to the particular areas of the psychology of emerging media literature that your study can help direct, emphasizing why these areas are of importance both theoretically and practically.
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