Manufacturing Resource Planning Discussion

Manufacturing Resource Planning.

The Thread

Use the Internet to search for at least 5 scholarly resources that relate to the topic and have been published within the last 5 years. Find articles that discuss opposing views of the topic or highlight problems in implementation and achieving above or below expectations. Academic articles and journals must be reputable and obtained from professional websites that address the content of this course. Popular magazines and online sources such as Wikipedia are not permissible.

After reading the articles, select 1 article relating to the topic and address its purpose, analysis, conclusions and recommendations. If the formatting could be lost from the text box, attach a Word file to your thread, and adhere to the following format:

  1. Key Concept Explanation: Define the key topic by using a source other than the textbook. Give a clear, concise overview of the essential elements relevant to understanding the key topic. In addition, explain why you are interested in this topic (e.g., academic curiosity, application to a current issue related to employment, or any other professional rationale) (about 200 words).
  2. Comparison: Compare your research with what you have studied during the module/week in which the key topic/thread is assigned. Note differences or commonalities about the key topic, providing evidence that you have extended your understanding of this topic beyond the textbook readings. Hence the need to find opposing/cautionary/beneficial perspectives in your research. This is an opportunity for you to cite the additional articles you originally researched. Note: All references must be used at some point in the body of your main submission and replies. References without application to your narratives will be discounted. This section must be at least 300 words.
  3. Article Summary: In your own words, provide a clear and concise summary of the article you selected. This section must be at least 200 words.
  4. Application: Specifically state how the key topic has been applied to real-world businesses or describe the potential the key topic must influence today’s business world. Consider also the potential for overstating expectations. Your application must possess a professional rationale that demonstrates the significance of the key topic. This section must be at least 300 words.
  5. Annotated Bibliography: Cite the articles you researched in current APA format. An annotation must accompany each citation. Each annotation will consist of a descriptive and evaluative paragraph that is at least 100 words. The annotations are designed to help your classmates in their understanding of the topic. In addition, provide a persistent link for each article.

The Replies

You will be required to write substantive replies to a minimum of 2 other classmates’ threads. Each reply must be a minimum of 500 words and include at least 2 scholarly resources. Acceptable sources include the textbook, the Bible, outside scholarly articles, etc.

Substantive replies, in contrast to perfunctory replies, add value to the forum, enhance learning, and contain references to any new concepts or ideas presented.

The following suggestions will aid you in successfully composing substantive responses:

  • Compare/contrast the findings of others with your research. Demonstrate critical thinking.
  • Compare how the findings of others relate/add to the concepts learned in the required readings. Demonstrate critical thinking.
  • Share additional knowledge regarding the key topic that relates to the thread. Demonstrate critical thinking.

Explanation & Answer length: 2000 words.

BUSI 615 DISCUSSION ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS You will complete 4 Discussions over the duration of this course. These Discussions will cover the following topics: • Manufacturing Resource Planning • Enterprise Resource Planning • Logistics Information Systems • Implementation of a Logistics System Each will be completed over a period of 2 Module: Weeks and will consist of 2 parts: the initial thread and replies. The Discussions allow you the opportunity to apply what you have learned from the assigned Learn material. Evidence of critical thinking through comparing and contrasting evidence which highlights pitfalls, weaknesses in theory and application and contextual relevancy is expected in both your main contribution and your replies to colleagues.

Each Discussion will consist of the topic and at least 2 replies to 2 other classmates’ threads. All posts must be written in current APA format in a substantive manner and must not contain spelling and/or grammar errors. The Thread Use the Internet to search for at least 5 scholarly resources that relate to the topic and have been published within the last 5 years. Find articles that discuss opposing views of the topic or highlight problems in implementation and achieving above or below expectations. Academic articles and journals must be reputable and obtained from professional websites that address the content of this course. Popular magazines and online sources such as Wikipedia are not permissible.

After reading the articles, select 1 article relating to the topic and address its purpose, analysis, conclusions and recommendations. If the formatting could be lost from the text box, attach a Word file to your thread, and adhere to the following format: 1. Key Concept Explanation: Define the key topic by using a source other than the textbook. Give a clear, concise overview of the essential elements relevant to understanding the key topic. In addition, explain why you are interested in this topic (e.g., academic curiosity, application to a current issue related to employment, or any other professional rationale) (about 200 words). 2. Comparison: Compare your research with what you have studied during the module/week in which the key topic/thread is assigned. Note differences or commonalities about the key topic, providing evidence that you have extended your understanding of this topic beyond the textbook readings.

Hence the need to find opposing/cautionary/beneficial perspectives in your research. This is an opportunity for you to cite the additional articles you originally researched. Note: All references must be used at some point in the body of your main submission and replies. References without application to your narratives will be discounted. This section must be at least 300 words. 3. Article Summary: In your own words, provide a clear and concise summary of the article you selected. This section must be at least 200 words. BUSI 615 4. Application: Specifically state how the key topic has been applied to real-world businesses or describe the potential the key topic must influence today’s business world.

Consider also the potential for overstating expectations. Your application must possess a professional rationale that demonstrates the significance of the key topic. This section must be at least 300 words. 5. Annotated Bibliography: Cite the articles you researched in current APA format. An annotation must accompany each citation. Each annotation will consist of a descriptive and evaluative paragraph that is at least 100 words. The annotations are designed to help your classmates in their understanding of the topic. In addition, provide a persistent link for each article. The Replies You will be required to write substantive replies to a minimum of 2 other classmates’ threads. Each reply must be a minimum of 500 words and include at least 2 scholarly resources. Acceptable sources include the textbook, the Bible, outside scholarly articles, etc.

Substantive replies, in contrast to perfunctory replies, add value to the forum, enhance learning, and contain references to any new concepts or ideas presented. The following suggestions will aid you in successfully composing substantive responses: • Compare/contrast the findings of others with your research. Demonstrate critical thinking. • Compare how the findings of others relate/add to the concepts learned in the required readings. Demonstrate critical thinking. • Share additional knowledge regarding the key topic that relates to the thread. Demonstrate critical thinking. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. Review your posts and the Student Expectations prior to submission in order to ensure that your sources are properly cited.

If you need any assistance in writing, format, or persistent links, the Liberty University Online Writing Center will be able to help you. Submit your initial thread by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Week and your replies to colleagues by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the following Module: Week (the Sunday reply deadline provides opportunity for further interaction to your replies – a growing thread is evidence of increasing value to you and your colleagues through learning and relevant critical engagement with the topic). In module 8, the deadline is Friday of that week.

Discussion: Manufacturing Lead Time Wise Discussion: Manufacturing Lead Time Key Concept Explanation In a manufacturing setting, manufacturing lead time is the total time required to produce an output, then deliver the output to the customer (Torres-Palacio, 2020). This period of time includes the initial receipt of all raw materials, as well as the time required to deliver the final product (Torres-Palacio, 2020). Therefore, manufacturing lead times are dynamic, constantly influenced by the management practices of an organization, the set up and structure of equipment, and the availability of raw materials and labor (Kumar, & Aouam, 2018). Regardless of industry, organizations must pursue effective strategies to reduce overall manufacturing lead times, so that products may be delivered quickly and efficiently to customers. The recent disruption of global supply chain networks created a significant increase in the lead time associated with products I use every day, and require to fulfill my job functions.

As lead times became inflated, the time frames and project lifecycles at my organization were extended. The sudden increase in manufacturing lead times developed my genuine interest in further understanding the concept. Particularly, what factors have the greatest negative effects on manufacturing lead times, how supply chain networks can mitigate these disruptions, and the relationship between lean manufacturing and manufacturing lead time reduction. Comparison Throughout the textbook and scholarly articles available, several key similarities and distinctions have become apparent. In terms of similarity, the greatest similarities pertain to the length of time that defines manufacturing lead times. The textbook defines manufacturing lead times as “the total time required to manufacture an item, exclusive of lower-level purchasing lead time” (Liberty University Custom, 2019, p. 39).

This definition reflects the definition found in scholarly articles, as manufacturing lead times are integrally connected to project lifecycles and projected timespans. These lifecycles include the time necessary to receive orders, input raw materials into the production process, and finally the time required to deliver outputs to the customer (Torres-Palacio, 2020). While very similar, these definitions can be made distinct when applying different business models to the concept of manufacturing lead times (Liberty University Custom, 2019). Make-to-order inventories often inherit more lengthy manufacturing lead times, because the time required to ship and deliver the products to the customer are included in make-to-order inventories (Liberty University Custom, 2019). In contrast, make-tostock products do not account for their delivery times in the manufacturing lead times (Liberty University Custom, 2019).

The distinction between the lead times associated with different product types illustrates the lack of consistency for lead times across different products, as well as organizations (Rahdar, Wang, & Hu, 2018). Expressed widely throughout the available literature, manufacturing lead times are dynamic and reflect the health and structure of individual supply chain networks. As organizations become more widely connected, able to source required raw materials from various, reputable suppliers, their manufacturing lead times are reduced (Rahdar, Wang, & Hu, 2018). In addition to the relationships an organization has established, an organization’s structure and commitment to lean management principles have dramatic effects on a product’s manufacturing lead time. Focus on the elements and principles found in lean management theory serves to streamline equipment setup, drastically improving the lead time associated with production (Nawanir, Lim, Ramayah, Mahmud, Lee, & Maarof, 2020).

These effects are easily observed when comparing the lead times between competitors. Particularly, when competitors implement opposing production philosophies. Article Summary Kumar & Aouam (2018), conducted research to examine the various effects of batch sizing, equipment set up times, and the overall equipment utilization on reducing the manufacturing lead time of an organization. In order to simplify the theoretical problem, the paper examines a distribution network consisting of a single manufacturer. Limiting the experiment to a single manufacturer allows for the isolation of variables, as set up times, inventory stock locations, and batch sizing can all be independently isolated, then studied. The value derived from the experiment is the reduction of set up time, as batch size and stock locations are integrated. When batch sizes were increased, the safety stock locations of inventory were pushed downstream.

Thus, eliminating the need for production managers to hold unnecessary inventory during the earlier stages of production. Therefore, increasing the equipment set up efficiency, as larger batches can be processed. These larger batches reduce the time needed for equipment set up, which results in a reduced manufacturing lead time for the manufacturer. The reduction in lead time is consistent with the application of lean management, and integral for JIT production. In addition, the shorter set up times also serve to reduce product lifecycle variability. In doing so, manufacturing lead times can be more accurately predicted, providing greater value to the manufacturer and consumers alike. Application The greatest value manufacturing lead times offer is the ability to assess and observe the efficiency of an organization’s manufacturing process.

Utilizing manufacturing lead times as a key performance indicator, organizations can assess the efficiency of their production processes in relation to their competitors. Organizations who exhibit excessive lead times can address their inefficiencies by implementing Lean/JIT strategies, synchronizing their supply chain operations, promoting efficient production processes. Without synergy, or effectively implemented lean manufacturing practices, organizations will experience unnecessarily long manufacturing lead times (Nawanir, et al., 2020). In a manufacturing setting, lead time coordination allows for product managers to estimate and control project lifecycle, using the lead time estimates of preceding events to schedule the set up and initiation of later events (Missbauer, 2020). Coordinating the various activities of production can be used to coordinate and predict manufacturing lead times (Missbauer, 2020).

Rather than await the completion of upstream activities, idle equipment and employees can begin setting up and preparing for later production activities. Thus, reducing the time lost from an unorganized and disjointed production release schedule. A real-life application of this practice can be seen in the production of testosterone products at Teva Pharmaceuticals. Teva produces various testosterone products, distinguished by their dosage strength and delivery types.

However, each product uses the same equipment and starting materials to produce various strengths of intermediates. Rather than await the release and delivery of each product to begin production of outstanding orders, Teva is able to reduce manufacturing lead times by successfully coordinating the production of each testosterone order consecutively. This requires upstream employees to provide production planners with accurate lead time estimates. Then the production planner can schedule the production of similar products simultaneously, reducing the need to tear down or set up new equipment. This continuous production reduces the overall lead time of each lot, ensuring equipment and workers are not left needlessly idle, and preventing time lost due to duplicate equipment set up.

The coordination of production to reduce lead times requires Teva to adhere to the principles of Lean management, but offers significant competitive advantage over competitors with no coordinated production processes. Annotated Bibliography Kumar, K., & Aouam, T. (2018). Effect of setup time reduction on supply chain safety stocks. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 49, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2018.08.001 The cited work provides key insights and information about the effect equipment set up has on inventory supply stocks, and the overall manufacturing lead time of a production process. As production managers successfully coordinate equipment set up, through the manipulation of batch size and order timing, work in progress inventory and safety stocks are pushed down the production process.

Thus, eliminating the need for production mangers to store excess inventory in the early stages of the production process. If safety stocks can be pushed beyond the rate limiting step, then manufacturing lead times will be optimized. Preventing the waste cause by contributing excess time and resources to compiling inventory at the rate limiting step. Missbauer, H. (2020). Order release planning by iterative simulation and linear programming: Theoretical foundation and analysis of its shortcomings. European Journal of Operational Research, 280(2), 495–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2019.07.030 When orders are received for production, wise and adept production managers can decrease overall lead times by coordinating production linearly. In order to coordinate production linearly, the estimated manufacturing lead times influence the schedule for ongoing production events.

Equipment and employees are allocated according to this coordination, so that equipment is not idle waiting for inputs, and employees are not wasting time setting up equipment when inputs are ready to be processed. The coordination of each production event, based on its estimated lead time, allows production managers to efficiently schedule new orders before the completion of in process orders. Thereby, reducing further manufacturing lead times that occur from a disorganized, nonlinear order schedule.

Nawanir, G., Lim, K. T., Ramayah, T., Mahmud, F., Lee, K. L., & Maarof, M. G. (2020). Synergistic effect of lean practices on lead time reduction: mediating role of manufacturing flexibility. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 27(5), 1815–1842. https://doi.org/10.1108/BIJ-05-2019-0205 Manufacturing lead times in a healthy supply chain network are dynamic, dependent on the influence of external variables, such as the supply chain network relationships themselves. In order to reduce a supply chain’s overall variability, which improves manufacturing lead times, the relationships of a supply chain network must be coordinated to develop synergy. Equipment must be maintained to prevent unexpected repairs, raw material inventory must be maintained for critical resources, and supplier relationships must be reliable.

Strengthening the relationships within a supply chain network reduces the overall variability and lead times of production, as well as improves the supply chain’s flexibility and response to potential disruptions. Rahdar, M., Wang, L., & Hu, G. (2018). A tri-level optimization model for inventory control with uncertain demand and lead time. International Journal of Production Economics, 195, 96–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2017.10.011 In a traditional manufacturing setting, orders suffer from two distinct sources of variability, demand and lead time variability. The study aims to address both sources of variability, developing a model production planners can use when ordering materials to reduce the total costs associated with finished goods production. The model aims to integrate both demand and lead time uncertainty.

Therefore, establishing a connection to quantitate either’s effect on the total cost of production, and how production affects the uncertainty of demand and lead times. The trioptimization model developed considers three unique perspectives, optimistic, moderate and pessimistic time frames. Establishing the model to represent all three perspectives provides the greatest possible scope for production managers to utilize. Torres-Palacio, P. (2020). The reduction of production lead time using holonic manufacturing: experiment and analysis. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 31(3), 648–668. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMTM-03-2019-0097 The study observes the use of coordinated or holonic structures within an organization, as a means of satisfying consumer demand for overall lead time reduction.

Organized, holonic manufacturing systems require team work and collaboration from a variety of employee groups to function. However, the holonic manufacturing systems provide significantly reduced manufacturing lead times, producing a tangible competitive advantage for organizations that implement a holonic approach. In order to further the knowledge and research of holonic teams, the study observed virtual teams of university participants. However, real life assessment is needed to successfully determine the true benefits associated from implementing holonic collaboration throughout production. References Kumar, K., & Aouam, T. (2018). Effect of setup time reduction on supply chain safety stocks. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 49, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2018.08.001 Liberty University Custom.

(2019). Logistics (Custom ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Create. ISBN: 9781264141241. Missbauer, H. (2020). Order release planning by iterative simulation and linear programming: Theoretical foundation and analysis of its shortcomings. European Journal of Operational Research, 280(2), 495–507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2019.07.030 Nawanir, G., Lim, K. T., Ramayah, T., Mahmud, F., Lee, K. L., & Maarof, M. G. (2020). Synergistic effect of lean practices on lead time reduction: mediating role of manufacturing flexibility. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 27(5), 1815–1842. https://doi.org/10.1108/BIJ-05-2019-0205 Rahdar, M., Wang, L., & Hu, G. (2018).

A tri-level optimization model for inventory control with uncertain demand and lead time. International Journal of Production Economics, 195, 96–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2017.10.011 Torres-Palacio, P. (2020). The reduction of production lead time using holonic manufacturing: experiment and analysis. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 31(3), 648–668. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMTM-03-2019-0097 MANUFACTURING RESOURCE PLANNING Brenda L 1 MANUFACTURING RESOURCE PLANNING 2 Key Concept Explanation Unique features of Demand driven material requirements planning (DDMRP) exists

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