Explanation & Answer length: 2 Paragraphs Each Case
Step 1: Select interpersonal conflicts that you are familiar with. They could be family conflicts between spouses, siblings, or others in your family. They could be a conflict between you and another party related to your relationship with that person. Alternatively, you could select conflicts from a movie that portrays parties in an interpersonal relationship. The key in this assignment is to select two conflicts in which you can identify the goals of the parties and the issues they are seeking to resolve in these conflicts. They can be something ongoing or long-since resolved.
Step 2: Prepare a 5 page (minimum) paper for each case that is double-spaced and addresses these five issues. Be sure to label each section so you will receive credit. These papers are difficult to grade if I can’t see that you’ve completed all the sections. Use the following labels given below: Case Overview. Provide a 2-3 paragraph overview of the case. Include a description of the parties involved and the substantive, relational, and identity issues at the heart of the conflict. Describe its current status. Is it escalating, are they moving to conflict resolution or what’s happening? Provide some background. Why is the conflict happening, where is it happening, and how is it evolving? You may also wish to provide some information about its impact. 2. Disputants’ Goals. Conduct an analysis of the parties’ goals. What are their substantive, relational and identity goals? List at least three goals (one in each category) for each party. Then based on your goal analysis, describe why the conflict is happening. Are parties trying to prevent one another from accomplishing their goals? How are they doing that?
3. Disputants’ Issues. Describe the specific issues parties are trying to resolve. What are the highest priority issues? Why are they having trouble resolving the issues? Give specific examples of the issues.
4. Theoretical Analysis. Conduct a theoretical analysis of the conflict. Identify a specific theory discussed in class or in the book that models or explains how or why the conflict is moving in the direction it is moving. The book and the lectures present many theories that explain why conflicts happen. You’re required to use one of these theories in your analysis. The approved list of theories you can use from the lecture are labeled “Theory” during the lectures. Not using a concept labeled “Theory” will cause you to lose points in this section of the paper. YOUR TOPIC MUST COME FROM YOUR LECTURE/BOOK NOTES.
5. Conflict Critique. Finally, present a critique of the conflict. Based on your analysis, what did you think parties are doing that’s either not productive and is serving to escalate the conflict or that is productive and aimed at resolving it? What other specific suggestions would you have for addressing the conflict? Should they pursue mediation or negotiation? Leave us with the impression that you understand the conflict and have some specific, concrete ideas about how to best address it. 1. 1/25/21 ● The Universe of Social Influence ○ Reward and Punishment Theory ■ Conformity pressures ■ Conform to obtain rewards and to escape punishments = means control ■ Conformity is motivated by peer approval which is rewarding ■ The human need for inclusion or belonging ■ Self esteem is formed around belonging ○ Obedience to Authority/Legitimate Power Theory ■ When you believe that others have a legitimate right to tell you what to do ■ And you have a duty to obey ■ Usually comes from cultural socialization.
■ More conformity when greater distance from bad event ○ Identification Theory ■ When people attempt to model their behavior on someone or on a group with whom the person identifies ■ Source does not demand behavior, just displays behavior ■ Desire to be like the person or group encourages emulation with good or bad behavior ■ Example: Jersey Shore ○ Compliance Gaining ■ Asking for compliant behavior ■ Foot-in-the-door technique: Start small and ask for more later ■ Food-in-the-Face technique: Start large and come down after rejection ■ Individuals don’t want to appear uncaring or unreasonable ○ Persuasion Theory ■ Goal is change in attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or behaviors ■ Attitude is a basic evaluation of something ■ Opinion is a verbal expression of an attitude ■ Belief is a judgement of fact ■ Behavior is overt action ● Interpersonal Needs Theory ○ Basic Interpersonal Needs ■ Each person, from birth on, strives to meet three basic interpersonal needs that are Not Negotiable ■ Inclusion – desire to be accepted and respected within some group/family ■ Control – desire to impact the environment to satisfy needs.
■ Affection – desire to receive intimacy and civility from others ● Campaign Goals ○ Goals ■ Change, reinforce, or stop behavior ■ Campaigns often do all three ■ Most difficult is stopping an old behavior ○ Goals Must Be Audience Centered ■ Hostile Receivers: get people to listen ■ Critical Receivers: create doubts ■ Uninformed Receivers: meet information needs; build credibility ■ Sympathetic Receivers: reinforce commitments with more actions 2/1/21 Strong Persuasive Messages ● Mapping the Audience ○ Demographics: Who is the message target and why? ■ 1. Gender, income, culture, age, status, generation ■ 2. Lifestyle, marital/relational status ○ Psychographics: Psychological profile ■ 1. Level of knowledge ■ 2. Perceptions of source credibility ■ 3. Level of potential interest ■ 4. Attitudes toward the task goal of the message ○ Mediagraphics: Media consumption habits ■ 1. Social media use ● Review of Effective Arguments ○ Argument: Position on an issue and reasons for that position ○ Part of an Argument ■ Premises: Claims about the nature of, or truth about issue based on reasoning and evidence ■ A Conclusion: Final statement or position on the issue ■ Application of reason or logic: Appeals to evidence, logic, fear, emotion, etc.
■ Relationship between premise and conclusions: Must provide an appeal directly related to conclusion ● Information Processing Theory ○ A) Audience First Examines Speaker’s Credibility ■ 1. Competence ● Knowledge, capability, experience ■ 2. Trustworthiness ● Long-term trust and short-term intention ● 3. Dynamism ○ Fun, likeable, similar ● The quality of the relationship (e.g. trust and liking) and key parts of the judgement ○ B) Audience Evaluates the Argument ■ 1. Is it attention getting? ■ 2. Is it logically reasoned? ■ 3. Is there strong evidence for the claim? ■ 4. Is it emotionally engaging? ■ 5. Strategies are key: ● Discuss issues of interest to the audience ● Use styles that entice and excite ● Continue to build a positive relationship ○ C) The Audience Assesses Their Ability to Comply ■ 1. Can I do it? ■ 2. Do I want to do it? ■ 3. Do others like me do it too? ■ 4. Do I need to reciprocate or give them something too? ■ 5. What will happen when I do it?
● Theories of Persuasion ○ A) Theory of Reasoned Action ■ 1. Your intention to comply depends on attitudes + beliefs + desires about the requested action ■ 2. Your perception of whether others (friends, parents) want you to do it ■ 3. Your motivation to comply with those important others ■ 4. Example: A health campaign to wear seat belts ○ B) Elaboration Likelihood Theory ■ 1. The more you think about (elaborate) an issue, the more you will change ■ 2. Central elaboration: weighing the issue extensively, maybe using a fear appeal ■ 3. Peripheral elaboration: using a simple decision rule to judge the message e.g. appearance or credibility ○ C) Social Norming Theory ■ 1. Individuals conform to social norms ■ 2. People feel they have permission to behave consistently with the norm ■ 3. Campaign aims at informing people of the real norm, and not the perceived norm ■ 4. Example: Campaign to decrease student drinking. The average MSU student has a total of 3 beers (or their equivalent) on an average weekend night. T or F? ● Persuasive Message Theory ○ A) Stimulate Active Listening ■ 1. Honest, competent, and attention getting ■ Aimed at core processing of information ○ B) Relevant to the Audience’s Needs and Attitudes ■ 1. Emotional and Informational needs ■ 2. Provide moving arguments for change ○ C) Request a SPECIFIC Action ■ 1. Vague messages often fail ■ 2. Say what you want in an appropriate way ○ D) Are Attainable by the Other ○ E) Are Consistent with Normative Pressures ■ 1. Friends would approve ■ 2. Repetition is essential ■ 3. Consistency is necessary 2/8/21 Adapting Persuasive Messages to Audiences
● Persuasibility ○ A) Males vs. Females ■ 1. Are women or men more persuadable? ■ 2. No, but female primes reduced the impact of strong arguments in producing attitude change ■ 3. Point: Good arguments encourage deeper thinking ○ B) Old vs. Young ■ 1. Younger people are more open to change ■ 2. As people age they also become more susceptible to persuasion ○ C) Dogmatism ■ 1. Closed-mindedness, Resistant to new information ■ 2. Dogmatic people can’t separate person from quality of the arguments ■ 3. Blindly follow dictates of sources they respect ○ D) Need for Cognition ■ 1. People who enjoy thinking ■ 2. Consider arguments more, need better arguments ■ 3. Have stronger attitudes and change less often ○ E) Self-Esteem ■ 1. Ego strength ● Think positively about one’s self ■ 2. Low and high self esteem less persuadable, but for different reasons ● Low – less attention ● High – overconfidence ■ 3.
Moderate self esteem more persuadable ○ F) Intelligence ■ 1. High intelligence resist more since counter-argue more ■ 2. Low intelligence more susceptible since counter-argue less ○ G) Audience Knowledge ■ 1. Knowledge of cultural, sociological, or interpersonal knowledge more interpersonal, more tailored ■ 2. Personality; more open to experience, more conscientiousness, more extraversion, more agreeableness – more open to persuasion ■ 3. The key is understanding important features of the audience and adapting arguments to them ● Social Media Influences ○ A) Hyper-personal Theory ■ 1. People develop more intimate relationships online ■ 2. Online communication styles are more direct; people are cautious in face-to-face settings since they can be judged on their nonverbals ■ 3. Individuals use more questions online and topics are more personal ■ 4. Electronic media strip out the nonverbal cues that make people more cautious than in face-to-face interactions ○ B)
The Contagion Effect Theory ■ 1. Contagion is the desire to act collectively in a large group or mob ■ 2. Key is knowing what valued others are doing then following them ■ 3. Social media facilitate mob behavior by indicating what all your friends are doing at any given time ■ 4. Social media provide a social sanction for action ○ C) Effects of User Similarity in Social Media ■ 1. Many social media sites provide evaluations of one another ■ 2. People say whether they like or trust one another of confer levels of authority on them ■ 3. Used with more similar or social ties are more positive toward another ■ 4. Positive evaluations must be earned since high status users devalue low-status users 2/15/21 ● Protection Motivation Theory ○ A) Creating a Health Campaign to Form the Intention to Protect One’s Self ■ 1. Begin with perceived severity of a threatened event (e.g., heart attack, stroke, car crash, overdose, etc.) ■ 2. Focus next on the perceived probability of occurrence of vulnerability based on risk factors ■ 3. Then, how the vulnerability can be avoided (perceived response efficacy) ■ 4. Finally, promote confidence in the person’s ability to do the recommended preventative behavior (perceived self-efficacy)
● Social Cognitive Theory ○ A) Campaigns must stimulate cognitive learning and coping skills by: ■ 1. Creating a supportive environment ■ 2. Mastering a health-related skill set ■ 3. Building confidence in the mastery of health skills ■ 4. Modeling positive outcomes of healthful behavior ■ 5. Promoting values for positive health outcomes ■ 6. Promoting self-monitoring and goal setting ■ 7. Reinforcing positive behavior ■ 8. Provide training in stress management ● Social Support Theory ○ A) Enhance psychological well-being by providing: ■ 1. Emotional support by sharing life experiences ● Empathy, love, trust, caring ■ 2. Instrumental support by providing tangible aid and services that directly assist a person in need. It is provided by close friends, colleagues, and neighbors ■ 3. Informational support involves the provision of advice, suggestions, and information that a persona can use to address problems ■ 4. Appraisal support involves the provision of information that is useful for self-evaluation purposes: ● Constructive feedback, affirmation, and social comparison ● Health Belief Theory ○ A) Campaign must contain messages that create: ■ 1. Perceived Susceptibility ● Chances of getting a condition ■ 2. Perceived Severity ● Showing serious consequences of the condition ■ 3. Perceived Benefits ● Belief that specific actions will reduce risks or impacts ■ 4. Perceived Barriers ● How to overcome barriers to advised actions ■ 5. Cues to Action ● What will stimulate readiness to take advised actions ■ 6. Self-Efficacy ● Building confidence in being able to perform advised actions ● Transactional Model of Stress and Coping ○ A)
Goal is to help people take control of stress with 6 elements: ■ 1. Appraisal ● Is the problem significant and can I control it? ■ 2. Coping ● What can I do to control the problem? ■ 3. Emotional Regulation ● How can I rethink the stressful problem ■ 4. Meaning-based Coping ● How can I create positive emotional responses to the problem? ■ 5. Optimism ● How can I create positive expectations for the outcomes? ■ 6. Information Seeking ● How can I be vigilant and learn about the problem? ● Sticky Messages Theory ○ A) What makes some messages more memorable than others? ■ 1. They are short and sweet – simple to remember, with a catchy saying ■ 2. They are unexpected – surprising given the context and content of the message ■ 3. They are concrete – clear and unambiguous ■ 4. They are credible – have specific details that make sense ■ 5. They are emotional – giving people a reason to care about the outcome endorsed by the message ■ 6. They are given in stories – narratives are more attention getting and easier to remember 2/22/21 ● Overcoming Counterproductive Message Effects ○ A) Strategies for Stabilizing Attitudes
■ 1. Providing strong arguments with lots of evidence ■ 2. Maintaining strong credibility ■ 3. Take an incremental approach to attitude change, not all or nothing ■ 4. Avoid stimulating audience reactance ■ 5. Avoid insulting the audience ○ B) An Attitude Resists Change When: ■ 1. Individuals had a low motivation counter argue ■ 2. The attitude is extreme ■ 3. The attitude is easily accessible ■ 4. The person is ego-involved in holding the attitude – part of their identity ■ 5. Key is knowing whether your audience has firm or flexible attitudes about an issue ○ C) Resistance is Achieved When: ■ 1. Forewarning of a coming persuasive message is given ■ 2. The request in impolite or rude ■ 3. People are very knowledgeable and have good reasons for their attitude ■ 4. People are emotionally committed to their attitude ○ D) Motivations to Resist Persuasion
■ 1. Their behaviors match their attitudes making them committed to the attitude ■ 2. Commitment increases when behavior is public ■ 3. Commitment is freely given, and not incentivized – attitude is internalized ■ 4. Incorporating the attitude into their self concept – identification ● Inoculation Theory ○ A) Features of the Theory ■ 1. Goal is to inoculate or vaccinate people’s attitudes against persuasion ■ 2. Build stronger attitudes so individuals will behave consistently with them ■ 3. First people must know that their attitude is threatened ■ 4. Second, they must refute those threats with strong evidence ○ B) Research Results ■ 1. Inoculation works. When warning is given, resistance increases ■ 2. Inoculation also strengthens related attitudes ■ 3. Inoculation can also persuade by strengthening attitudes ● Inoculation Theory Examples ○ A) Health Campaign: Texting ■ 1. Goal: Support anti-texters ■ 2. Inoculate with evidence about dangers ○ B) Political Campaign: Tax Increase ■ 1. Goal: Support anti-taxers ■ 2. Inoculate with lack of need evidence ○ C) Advertising Campaign: Soft Drinks ■ 1. Goal: Support soft drinkers ■ 2. Inoculate with refutations about health problems 3/1/21 Attitude Behavior Relationship ● Attitude-Behavior Consistency Pressures ○ A) The Psychological Pressure to be consistent ■ 1. Cognitive dissonance is discomfort produced by inconsistencies in attitudes and behaviors.
More inconsistency – more discomfort ■ 2. Psychological discomfort must be resolved to achieve balance or homeostasis ■ 3. Studies produce dissonance and then persuade people to resolve it ■ 4. Persuasion, or motivation to change attitudes or behaviors results from motivation to resolve the dissonance or discomfort ● Attitude-Behavior Consistency ○ A) Attitudes and Behavior are Consistent When: ■ 1. The specific attitude matches the specific behavior ■ 2. Specific beliefs align with the attitude; more specific beliefs yield a stronger attitude, or evaluation as good or bad ■ 3. There is a social support for the beliefs and the resulting attitudes ■ 4. The attitudes are aligned with the behavioral intentions ■ 5. The attitudes, beliefs and intentions are freely expressed without external pressures ○ B) Subjective Norms as Consistency Drivers ■ 1. Descriptive norms: Perception of what other people do ■ 2. Injunctive norms: Perception of what other people approve/disapprove ■ 3. The more they work together, the more powerful they are ● Implications for Persuasion ○ A)
Creating and then Removing Inconsistency ■ 1. Show how current actions don’t align with the stated attitudes ■ 2. Provide clear path to align behaviors and attitudes ○ B) Focusing on Attitudes that are Directly Related to Desired Behaviors ■ 1. Try to change attitudes that are specific ■ 2. Show how changing attitudes will yield more desirable behaviors ○ C) Focusing on Beliefs that Drive Attitudes ■ 1. What are they key beliefs that result in the attitudes ● Diffusion on Innovation Theory ○ A) Innovation ■ 1. Perceived change from the status quo ■ 2. That is perceived as a new ○ B) Diffusion ■ 1. Persuading people to adopt the innovation so it will spread ■ 2. Using interpersonal and media channels ■ 3. Example: Buzz marketing ○ C) Persuading Users to Adopt the Innovation Depends On: ■ 1. Innovation features ● Relative advantage: is it better? ● Compatibility: is it familiar ● Complexity: is it easy ● It must be better, familiar, and easy for people to adopt it. Example: iPhone in 2007 ○ D) Stages of Adoption ■ 1. Knowledges Stage: Exposed to the idea ■ 2. Persuasion Stage: Interest from change agent ■ 3. Decision Stage: Mental application of idea ■ 4. Implementation Stage: Try on a small scale ■ 5. Confirmation Stage: Adopt and confirm decision END EXAM 1 3/15/21 I. The Psychology of Conflict A. Negotiator Orientation Theory 1. Distributive, or competitive: focus on own interests 2. Integrative, or collaborative: focus on both parties achieving their goals 3. Attitudes toward …
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