Human Resource Management in International Markets Discussion

Question Description

1. Discuss the different categories of international employees.

2.  Discuss the  factors Affecting Human Resource Management in International Markets

Consult chapter 15 to complete the discussion.

Chapter 9 Employee Development ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Learning Objectives 1 of 2 LO9-1 Explain how employee development contributes to strategies related to employee retention, development of intellectual capital, and business growth. LO9-2 Discuss the steps in the development planning process. LO9-3 Explain the employees’ and company’s responsibilities in planning development. LO9-4 Discuss current trends in using formal education for development. LO9-5 Relate how assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance can be used for employee development. ©McGraw-Hill Education Learning Objectives 2 of 2 LO9-6 Explain how job experiences can be used for skill development. LO9-7 Develop successful mentoring programs.

LO9-8 Describe how to train managers to coach employees. LO9-9 Discuss what companies are doing to melt the glass ceiling. LO9-10 Use the 9-box grid for identifying where employees fit in a succession plan and construct appropriate development plans for them. ©McGraw-Hill Education The Relationship among Development, Training, and Careers 1 of 2 Development and Training • Critical for talent management • Prepares Millennials to replace Baby Boomers • Provides opportunities for employees to grow their skills • Contributes to high levels of engagement and satisfaction LO 9-1 ©McGraw-Hill Education The Relationship among Development, Training, and Careers 2 of 2 Development and Careers • Protean career • Employees take responsibility for managing their own careers • Psychological success • Career patterns provide opportunities for employees to • Determine their interests, skills strengths and weaknesses

• Seek development experiences ©McGraw-Hill Education Figure 9.1 Steps and Responsibilities in the Development Planning Process LO 9-2 Jump to long description in appendix ©McGraw-Hill Education Development Planning Systems 1 of 2 Self-Assessment • Psychological tests • Development needs are identified • May determine skill needs or interests Reality Check • Usually comes from a performance appraisal • 360 degree feedback LO 9-3 ©McGraw-Hill Education Development Planning Systems 2 of 2 Goal Setting • Desired positions • Level of skill application • Work setting • Skill acquisition Action Planning

• Depends on needs and developmental goal ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 9.2 Design Features of Effective Development Systems 1 of 2 1. System is positioned as a response to a business need or supports the business strategy. 2. Employees and managers participate in development of the system. 3. Employees are encouraged to take an active role in career management and development. 4. Evaluation is ongoing and used to improve the system. 5. Business units can customize the system for their own purposes (with some constraints). SOURCE: Based on B. Kaye and C. Smith, “Career Development: Shifting from Nicety to Necessity,” T+D, January 2012, pp. 52–55; M. Weinstein, “Paths to Success: Responsibility vs. Promotion,” Training, July/August 2014, pp. 52–54; D. Hall, Careers in and out of Organizations (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2002) ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 9.2 Design Features of Effective Development Systems 2 of 2 6. Employees have access to development and career information sources (including advisors and positions available).

7. Senior management and the company culture support the development system. 8. The development system is linked to other human resource practices such as performance management, training, and recruiting systems. 9. A large, diverse talent pool is created. 10. Development plans and talent evaluation information are available and accessible to all managers. ©McGraw-Hill Education Figure 9.3 Frequency of Use of Employee Development Practices Jump to long description in appendix ©McGraw-Hill Education SOURCE: EFMD, Network of Corporate Academies, Society for Human Resource Management, “Leadership Development: The Path to Greater Effectiveness,” 2016, Approaches to Employee Development 1 of 12 Formal Education • Off-site or on-site • Lecture, business games and simulations, adventure learning, meeting with customers • Custom programs • Tuition reimbursement programs LO 9-4 ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 2 of 12 Assessment

• Identify employees with managerial potential and measure current managers’ strengths and weaknesses. • Used with work teams to identify the strengths and weaknesses of individual team members and the decision processes or communication styles that inhibit the team’s productivity. • Can help employees understand their tendencies, their needs, the type of work environment they prefer, and the type of work they might prefer to do. LO 9-5 ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 3 of 12 Assessment continued • Personality Tests and Inventories • Myers-Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) • Measures 16 personality types • Each type has implications for work habits and interpersonal relationships • DiSC assessment • Measures personality and behavioral style ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 4 of 12 Assessment continued • Assessment center • Leaderless group discussion • Interview • In-basket • Role-play ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 5 of 12 Assessment continued

• Performance Appraisals and 360-Degree Feedback Systems • Must tell employees specifically about their performance problems and how they can improve their performance. • Managers must be trained in frequent performance feedback. • Upward feedback • 360-degree feedback ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 9.6 Activities Involved in Using 360-Degree Feedback for Development 1. Understand strengths and weaknesses Review ratings for strengths and weaknesses Identify skills or behaviors where self and others’ (manager’s, peers’, customers’) ratings agree and disagree 2. Identify a development goal Choose a skill or behavior to develop Set a clear, specific goal with a specified outcome 3. Identify a process for recognizing goal accomplishment 4. Identify strategies for reaching the development goal Establish strategies such as reading, job experiences, courses, and relationships Establish strategies for receiving feedback on progress Establish strategies for reinforcing the new skill or behavior ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 6 of 12 Job Experiences • Stretch assignments

• May be positive or negative stressors • May include enlarging the current job, job rotation, transfers, promotions, downward moves, and temporary assignments. LO 9-6 ©McGraw-Hill Education Figure 9.4 How Job Experiences Are Used for Employee Development ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 7 of 12 Job Experiences continued • Job enlargement • Special project assignments, switching roles within a work team, or researching new ways to serve clients and customers • Job rotation and lateral moves • Helps employees gain an overall appreciation of the company’s goals, increases their understanding of different company functions, develops a network of contacts, and increases employees’ skills • May affect employee satisfaction and motivation ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 8 of 12 Job Experiences continued • Transfers, promotions, and downward moves

• Employees are more willing to accept promotions than lateral or downward moves. • May involve relocation within the United States or to another country; can provoke anxiety. ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 9 of 12 Job Experiences continued • Temporary assignments, projects, volunteer work, and sabbaticals • Employee exchange • Volunteer assignments ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 10 of 12 Interpersonal Relationships • Mentoring • Usually start informally, but may be part of a formal mentoring program. • Developing successful mentor programs LO 9-7 ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 9.9 Characteristics of Successful Formal Mentoring Programs 1 of 2 1. Mentor and protégé participation is voluntary. Relationship can be ended at any time without fear of punishment. 2. The mentor–protégé matching process does not limit the ability of informal relationships to develop.

For example, a mentor pool can be established to allow protégés to choose from a variety of qualified mentors. 3. Mentors are chosen on the basis of their past record in developing employees, willingness to serve as a mentor, and evidence of positive coaching, communication, and listening skills. 4. Mentor–protégé matching is based on how the mentor’s skills can help meet the protégé’s needs. 5. The purpose of the program is clearly understood. Projects and activities that the mentor and protégé are expected to complete are specified. ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 9.9 Characteristics of Successful Formal Mentoring Programs 2 of 2 6. The length of the program is specified. Mentor and protégé are encouraged to pursue the relationship beyond the formal period. 7. A minimum level of contact between the mentor and protégé is specified. Mentors and protégés need to determine when they will meet, how often, and how they will communicate outside the meetings. 8. Protégés are encouraged to contact one another to discuss problems and share successes.

9. The mentor program is evaluated. Interviews with mentors and protégés give immediate feedback regarding specific areas of dissatisfaction. Surveys gather more detailed information regarding benefits received from participating in the program. 10. Employee development is rewarded, which signals to managers that mentoring and other development activities are worth their time and effort. ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 11 of 12 Interpersonal Relationships continued • Mentoring continued • Benefits of mentoring relationships • Career support • Psychosocial support • Reverse mentoring ©McGraw-Hill Education Approaches to Employee Development 12 of 12 Interpersonal Relationships continued • Coaching • One-on-one or help employees learn for themselves • Provide resources LO 9-8 ©McGraw-Hill Education Special Issues in Employee Development 1 of 2 Melting the Glass Ceiling • Women are underrepresented in all levels of management. • May be due to stereotypes, lack of access to training programs, appropriate developmental job experiences, and developmental relationships LO 9-9 ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 9.10 Recommendations for Melting the Glass Ceiling

• Make sure senior management supports and is involved in the program. • Make a business case for change. • Make the change public. • Gather data on problems causing the glass ceiling using task forces, focus groups, and questionnaires. • Create awareness of how gender attitudes affect the work environment. • Force accountability through reviews of promotion rates and assignment decisions. • Promote development for all employees. ©McGraw-Hill Education Special Issues in Employee Development 2 of 2 Succession Planning • Requires senior management to systematically review leadership talent in the company • Ensures that top-level managerial talent is available • Provides a set of development experiences that managers must complete to be considered for top management positions • Helps attract and retain managerial employees by providing them with development opportunities

• Dependent on other human resource systems, including compensation, training and development, and staffing LO 9-10 ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 9.11 The Process of Developing a Succession Plan 1. Identify what positions are included in the plan. 2. Identify the employees who are included in the plan. 3. Develop standards to evaluate positions (e.g., competencies, desired experiences, desired knowledge, developmental value). 4. Determine how employee potential will be measured (e.g., current performance and potential performance). 5. Develop the succession planning review.

6. Link the succession planning system with other human resource systems, including training and development, compensation, performance management, and staffing systems. 7. Determine what feedback is provided to employees. 8. Measure the effectiveness of the succession plan. ©McGraw-Hill Education Figure 9.5 Example of a 9-Box Grid Jump to long description in appendix ©McGraw-Hill Education Appendix of Image Long Descriptions ©McGraw-Hill Education Appendix 1 Figure 9.1 Steps and Responsibilities in the Development Planning Process Four boxes are connected by one way arrows: Self-assessment, reality check, goal setting, and action planning. Employee responsibility for self-assessment is Identify opportunities and needs to improve; for reality check is Identify what needs are realistic to develop; for goal setting is Identify goal and method to determine goal progress; and for action planning is Identify steps and timetable to reach goal.

Company responsibility for self-assessment is Provide assessment information to identify strengths, weaknesses, interests, and values; for reality check is Communicate performance evaluation, where employee fits in long-range plans of the company, changes in industry, profession, and workplace; for goal setting is Ensure that goal is SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and timely); commit to help employee reach the goal, and for action planning is Identify resources employee needs to reach goal, including additional assessment, courses, work experiences, and relationships. Return to original slide ©McGraw-Hill Education Appendix 2 Figure 9.3 Frequency of Use of Employee Development Practices Percentage of Specific Practices Used Classroom courses 80% Coaching 79% Mentoring 68% Leadership forums 56% High-visibility assignments 42% Matching employees with “stretch” opportunities 35% Job rotation 30% Return to original slide ©McGraw-Hill Education Appendix 3 Figure 9.5 Example of a 9-Box Grid A 9-box grid is a three-by-three matrix, with the Y axis performance and the x-axis labeled potential or promotability.

The boxes are labeled, from left to right and bottom to top: 1. poor employee, 2. inconsistent employee, 3. potential or may be replaced, 4. strong contributor, 5. core employee, 6. rising star, 7. technical or subject expert, 8. agile nonperformer, and 9. star. Return to original slide ©McGraw-Hill Education Chapter 10 Employee Separation and Retention ©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Learning Objectives LO10-1 Distinguish between involuntary and voluntary turnover, and discuss how each of these forms of turnover can be leveraged for competitive advantage. LO10-2 List the major elements that contribute to perceptions of justice and how to apply these in organizational contexts involving discipline and dismissal. LO10-3 Specify the relationship between job satisfaction and various forms of job withdrawal, and identify the major sources of job satisfaction in work contexts.

LO10-4 Design a survey feedback intervention program, and use this to promote retention of key organizational personnel. ©McGraw-Hill Education Managing Involuntary Turnover 1 of 6 Employment-at-Will Doctrine • Either the employer or the employee could sever the employment relationship at any time • Wrongful discharge suit • Can be filed as a civil rights infringement if the person discharged is a member of a protected group • Paper trail • Initiating punitive actions short of termination, in an effort to get the employee to quit on his or her own • Paying off the employee in excess severance pay in return for waiving the right to sue for wrongful dismissal LO 10-1 ©McGraw-Hill Education Managing Involuntary Turnover 2 of 6 Principles of Justice • Outcome fairness • Noncompete clauses • Procedural justice

• Lack of bias and informational accuracy are the most critical determinants. • Interactional justice LO 10-2 ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 10.1 Six Determinants of Procedural Justice 1. Consistency. The procedures are applied consistently across time and other persons. 2. Bias suppression. The procedures are applied by a person who has no vested interest in the outcome and no prior prejudices regarding the individual. 3. Information accuracy. The procedure is based on information that is perceived to be true. 4. Correctability. The procedure has built-in safeguards that allow one to appeal mistakes or bad decisions. 5. Representativeness. The procedure is informed by the concerns of all groups or stakeholders (co-workers, customers, owners) affected by the decision, including the individual being dismissed. 6. Ethicality. The procedure is consistent with prevailing moral standards as they pertain to issues like invasion of privacy or deception.

©McGraw-Hill Education Table 10.2 Four Determinants of Interactional Justice 1. Explanation. Emphasize aspects of procedural fairness that justify the decision. 2. Social sensitivity. Treat the person with dignity and respect. 3. Consideration. Listen to the person’s concerns. 4. Empathy. Identify with the person’s feelings. ©McGraw-Hill Education Managing Involuntary Turnover 3 of 6 Progressive Discipline and Alternative Dispute Resolution • Termination should come about at the end of a systematic discipline program. • Documentation • Punitive measures • Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 10.3 An Example of a Progressive Discipline Program OFFENSE FREQUENCY ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE DOCUMENTATION First offense Unofficial verbal warning Witness present Second offense Official written warning Document filed Third offense Second official warning, with threat of temporary suspension Document filed Fourth offense Temporary suspension and “last chance notification” Document filed Fifth offense Termination (with right to go Document filed to arbitration) ©McGraw-Hill Education Table 10.4 Stages in Alternative Dispute Resolution Stage 1: Open-door policy The two people in conflict (e.g., supervisor and subordinate) attempt to arrive at a settlement together.

If none can be reached, they proceed to Stage 2: Peer review A panel composed of representatives from the organization that are at the same level of those people in the dispute hears the case and attempts to help the parties arrive at a settlement. If none can be reached, they proceed to Stage 3: Mediation A neutral third party from outside the organization hears the case and, via a nonbinding process, tries to help the disputants arrive at a settlement. If none can be reached, the parties proceed to Stage 4: Arbitration A professional arbitrator from outside the organization hears the case and resolves it unilaterally by rendering a specific decision or award. Most arbitrators are experienced employment attorneys or retired judges. ©McGraw-Hill Education Managing Involuntary Turnover 4 of 6 Employee Assistance and Wellness Programs • Employee assistance program (EAP) • Usually identified in official documents published by the employer (such as employee handbooks). • Supervisors (and union representatives, where relevant) are trained to use the referral service for employees whom they suspect of having health-related proble…

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