# How Can We Use Data to Analyze the Increase in EpiPen Costs Presentation

Section 6.1 How can we use data to analyze the increase in EpiPen costs? More than 3.5 million Americans are prescribed EpiPens each year. The prices of two-pack EpiPens are shown in the following table for various years. Let p be the price (in dollars) at t years since 2005. M th in Context 6.1: The prices of two-pack EpiPens are shown in the following table for various years. Let p be the price (in dollars) at t years since 2005. A student constructs the scatterplot below and concludes that the price increased by the same amount every two years. By referring to the data table do you agree with the student? Explain. • Yes, by referring to the data table I agree with the student because The scatterplot is entered correctly and looks very accurate. M th in Context 6.1: The prices of two-pack EpiPens are shown in the following table for various years. Let p be the price (in dollars) at t years since 2005.

A student constructs the scatterplot below and concludes that the price increased by the same amount every two years. Describe all the errors in the student’s scatterplot. M th in Context 6.1: The prices of two-pack EpiPens are shown in the following table for various years. Let p be the price (in dollars) at t years since 2005. A student constructs the scatterplot below and concludes that the price increased by the same amount every two years. Construct a correct scatterplot in Excel. Paste it here. M th in Context 6.1: The prices of two-pack EpiPens are shown in the following table for various years. Let p be the price (in dollars) at t years since 2005. Looking at your correct scatterplot, answer the following: • Is there an association between the year and price of EpiPens? • Is the association positive or negative? Explain. M th in Context 6.1: The prices of two-pack EpiPens are shown in the following table for various years. Let p be the price (in dollars) at t years since 2005. Looking at your correct scatterplot, answer the following: •

Did the increases in the price increase, decrease, stay approximately constant, or none of these? Explain. Section 6.3 How can economic data be used in political arguments for increasing minimum wage? In 2020, Arizona minimum wage was raised to $12 an hour. Minimum wage has been a contentious topic in Congress for decades. Here we will look at some of the data used in these arguments. M th in Context 6.3: Living wage is the hourly rate that an individual in a household must earn to support his or herself and their family, assuming they work full-time. In the case of households with two working adults, all values are per working adult. Below are the living wage calculations for Arizona. (Source: https://livingwage.mit.edu/states/04) M th in Context 6.3: 50% (393,872) of children in low-income families in Arizona live with a single parent. Only 22% (171,571) of children in above low-income families live with a single parent. Thus, let’s focus on living wage for single parents.

(Source: http://www.nccp.org/profiles/AZ_profile_6.html) Construct a scatterplot in Excel showing the association between the number of children of a single parent and the living wage. Add in the linear regression line and correlation coefficient. Paste it here. M th in Context 6.3: 50% (393,872) of children in low-income families in Arizona live with a single parent. Only 22% (171,571) of children in above low-income families live with a single parent. Thus, let’s focus on living wage for single parents. (Source: http://www.nccp.org/profiles/AZ_profile_6.html) Determine the direction of the association. What does it mean in this situation? Make an educated guess why this occurs. M th in Context 6.3: 50% (393,872) of children in low-income families in Arizona live with a single parent. Only 22% (171,571) of children in above low-income families live with a single parent.

Thus, let’s focus on living wage for single parents. (Source: Use your linear regression equation to predict the living wage for a single parent with 5 children. http://www.nccp.org/profiles/AZ_profile_6.html) What type of prediction did you just make? Explain. M th in Context 6.3: 50% (393,872) of children in low-income families in Arizona live with a single parent. Only 22% (171,571) of children in above low-income families live with a single parent. Thus, let’s focus on living wage for single parents. (Source: Calculate the residuals for the following number of children. Explain what these values mean.

• 0 Children • 1 Child http://www.nccp.org/profiles/AZ_profile_6.html) M th in Context 6.3: 50% (393,872) of children in low-income families in Arizona live with a single parent. Only 22% (171,571) of children in above low-income families live with a single parent. Thus, let’s focus on living wage for single parents. (Source: http://www.nccp.org/profiles/AZ_profile_6.html) How could those for raising minimum wage use the data in this table to support their position? M th in Context 6.3: 50% (393,872) of children in low-income families in Arizona live with a single parent. Only 22% (171,571) of children in above low-income families live with a single parent. Thus, let’s focus on living wage for single parents. (Source: http://www.nccp.org/profiles/AZ_profile_6.html) How could those against raising the minimum age use the data on living and poverty wage to make a counterargument t o the reasoning on the previous slide? Year Price ($) 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 108 110 151 209 355 609 Government Contracts Excel Project 4 Before you begin… Open the Project Instructions and follow them to complete your Project 4 Excel Template. The following slides will then ask you to complete various tasks regarding your Excel project. • Most slides will require you to annotate the slides. Make sure you show your math computations and answer the questions in complete sentences.

• One slide will require you to create a Zoom video recording of yourself working in Excel and interpreting your result. Make sure to add the link to your Zoom cloud recording in assignment’s Student Work section in Teams. Task 1: Demonstrate in a Zoom video how you would use Excel to calculate the probability that if you were to randomly select a government contract, that it was: • awarded to a Honeywell International company? To calculate the probability, we will first have to filter the data. To do so, click on ‘Sort and Filter’ button on top right of the excel window. Dropdown list will be created along the headings of each column. Select all the options related to Honeywell International Company. After doing so, we will only see the details of contract given to Honeywell. The number of contract awarded to Honeywell will be given by the number of rows in the data. So, we copy any one column in separate excel sheet and count the number of rows (excluding the heading). Task 1: Demonstrate in a Zoom video how you would use Excel to calculate the probability that if you were to randomly select a government contract, that it was: • awarded to a Honeywell International company? Based on that, The number of contracts awarded to Honeywell = 2245 Total number of contracts = 27195 (This comes from the number of rows in original dataset) Therefore, P(contract was awarded to Honeywell) = The number of contracts awarded to Honeywell Total number of contracts 2245 = 0.08255 27195 (All the companies with name Honeywell have been taken into account.) = Task 1: Demonstrate in a Zoom video how you would use Excel to calculate the probability that if you were to randomly select a government contract, that it was: .

• NOT a contract given out to a company in Tucson? In this question, we will first find the probability that the contract was given to Tucson company. Then we will subtract it from 1. To do so, we will follow the similar procedure of filtering the data by recipient name by selecting all the companies with name Tucson in the dropdown list of Recipient column. The number of contract awarded to Tucson will be given by the number of rows in the data. So, we copy any one column in separate excel sheet and count the number of rows (excluding the heading).

Task 1: Demonstrate in a Zoom video how you would use Excel to calculate the probability that if you were to randomly select a government contract, that it was: • NOT a contract given out to a company in Tucson? Based on that, The number of contracts awarded to Tucson = 36 Total number of contracts = 27195 (This comes from the number of rows in original dataset) Therefore, P(contract was awarded to Tucson) = The number of contracts awarded to Tucson Total number of contracts 36 27195 (All the companies with name Tucson have been taken into account.) = Task 1: Demonstrate in a Zoom video how you would use Excel to calculate the probability that if you were to randomly select a government contract, that it was:

• NOT a contract given out to a company in Tucson? Therefore, P(contract was not awarded to Tucson) = 1- P(contract was awarded to Tucson) =1- 36 27195−36 27159 = = = 0.9987 27195 27195 27195 4 78 16 4 11 2 13 69 2 Total 10 4 101 110 2 7 63 104 29 6 14 5 4 1 3 6 4 481 23 38 8 1 80 2 14 2 100 21 5 188 23 56 0 0 18 2 Other 12: USDA 14: DOI 15: DOJ 19: DOS 36: VA 47: GSA 70: DHS 75: HHS 80: NASA Aircraft/ Repair Housekeeping/ Transportation Communication/ Software Display the completed two-way table as shown in the second Excel sheet. Medical/ Hospital Food/ Kitchen Task 2: 326 512 259 74 96 104 141 224 108 555 766 329 92 653 197 291 565 130 97: DOD Other 1514 330 1868 152 305 19087 23256 0 8 22 24 34 273 361 Total 1590 1028 2315 520 538 21204 27195 Task 2: Explain how you determined the value in cell H4 in the two-way table. H4 refers to the total contracts of Department of Justice (DOJ). To obtain the number, click on ‘Sort and Filter’ button on top right of the excel window. Dropdown list will be created along the headings of each column. In the dropdown menu of ‘Agency Name’, select ‘Department of Justice (DOJ)’ and press enter. After doing so, we will only see the details of Department of Justice. The number of rows of the obtained data after filtering will give the number of total contracts related to DOJ. The number of contracts related to DOJ = 329 Task 2: What is the probability that if you were to randomly select a government contract that it is a contract for the Department of the Defense (DOD)? Explain how you used the two two-way table to compute the probability.

P(selected contract is the contract of DOD)= = 23256 27195 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐷𝑂𝐷 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑠 = 0.855 Two-way table has been used to obtain the number of contracts that Department of Defense has. The table also provided the total number of contracts. Task 2: What is the probability that if you were to randomly select a government contract that it is a contract for the DHS OR for aircraft/repair? Explain how you used the two two-way table to compute the probability. We have to find the number of contracts that will be either for DHS or Aircraft/Repair category. To do so, we will add the number of contracts for DHS and Aircraft/Repair category but that will lead to addition of contracts that are for both the categories twice. So, to correct that we will subtract the number of contracts that are common for DHS and Aircraft/Repair category. To do so, we will take help of twoway table.

Number of contracts that will be either for DHS or Aircraft/Repair category = Number of contracts for DHS + Number of contracts for Aircraft/Repair category – Number of contracts for DHS and Aircraft/Repair category Task 2: What is the probability that if you were to randomly select a government contract that it is a contract for the DHS OR for aircraft/repair? Explain how you used the two twoway table to compute the probability. Using the two-way table: Number of contracts that will be either for DHS or Aircraft/Repair category = 291 + 2315 – 100 = 2506 Therefore, P(selected contract is contract for DHS or 2506 Aircraft/repair) = = 0.092 27195 Task 2: Are these two events disjoint? Explain your answer using the two-way table. No, the two events are not disjoint because they do occur at the same time. From the two-way table, we can see that there are 100 contracts that lie under both DHS and Aircraft/Repair category. Hence, there is a chance that the randomly selected project falls under both the categories. Adults Children 1 Adult 1 Adult 1 Adult 1 Adult 2 Adults (1 working) 2 Adults (1 working) 2 Adults (1 working) 2 Adults (1 working) 2 Adults (Both working) 2 Adults (Both working) 2 Adults (Both working) 2 Adults (Both working) 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Living Wage Poverty Wage 12.01 6 25.16 8.13 31.24 10.25 40.43 12.38 19.39 8.13 23.98 10.25 26.61 12.38 31.18 14.5 9.7 4.06 13.98 5.13 17 6.19 20.99 7.25

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