Ethical Issues Related To Consumers from Marketing in a Global Context Questions

Total Marks :100 Contents: Warnings and Declaration…………………………………………………………….…………………………….…………………………………. 1 Question 1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………….…..…. 2 Question 2 ………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Question 3 ………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Please note that your answers must be on the answers’ form that you can download it from your LMS account for every course Plagiarism Warning: As per AOU rules and regulations, all students are required to submit their own THE-Final work and avoid plagiarism. The AOU has implemented sophisticated techniques for plagiarism detection. You will be penalized for any act of plagiarism as per the AOU’s rules and regulations. Declaration of No Plagiarism by Student: I hereby declare that the submitted THE-Final work is a result of my own efforts and I have not plagiarized any other person’s work. My submission through the official forms and channels are considered as confirmation and approval on what is mentioned earlier regarding plagiarism. THE-Final- Version B 1 of 3 2020-2021/Second QUESTIONS: Answer the below questions based on the course material, your own experience and information search on the internet and in academic sources from the AOU e-library. (i.e. companies’ webpages, AOU elibrary databases…)

Question 1 (35 marks, 300 words) Brazil is the fastest growing fragrance market on earth. The people love anything perfumed. Everyone who can spends something on scented products, from perfume to air fresheners to toilet cleaners. For the fragrance industry, Brazil is the perfect storm. Even car dealers are fragrance-obsessed. From Aston Martin dealership to toilet cleaners, everybody wants a good smell. Givaudan is among the big companies in Brazil that are competing in the fragrance business. Scented washing detergent is one of Givaudan’s products being marketed to low-income consumers. The magical moments- real example: In the North of Brazil lives very low-income consumers; there was a couple with four kids. The six of them would share the two beds. And although they were extremely poor, one of the best moments their day was when they went to bed. Why? Because they owned just one bed sheet for each bed, but the woman would wash it every day.

This washing powder would make the bed sheet very clean, and above all, perfumed. It was a way for her of inclusion, to be able to afford. If she could not afford perfume itself, fragrance would come through products that she used in the house. Required: A. Discuss the main ethical issues related to consumers from marketing in a global context. B. Do you think the poor consumers of the fragranced laundry detergent could be considered vulnerable consumers in this instance? Discuss why, or why not.

Question 2 (35 marks, 300 words) Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with the transformation and changes of organizations goals, processes or technologies. During the times of change, people tend to resist change and stick to old processes and habits. Write an essay to discuss the following: 1. Why is it important for businesses to change? 2. What are the main reasons for people to resist change? 3. Link the above discussion to the current situation of employee working remotely due to COVID-19. How were organizations able to cope with the new situation? Support your discussion with relevant examples.

Question 3 (30 marks, 300 words) An employer brand describes the essence of what it means to be an employee of your company. Your employer brand sets your company apart from all the other employers out there. The purpose of an employer brand is to describe the type of employees who will be successful at your company, and the kinds of employee traits you want your employees to encompass. It also serves to describe why your company is a great place to work. For Apple, the “Think Different” commercial presents an emotionally compelling story, clearly identifying Apple’s employment brand. Who fits in at Apple? Those who have a rebel streak. Creative people who take risks. People who do things against the grain, somewhat counterculture. Those not defined by failure. Essentially, people who think different. Required: Explain what is meant by internal marketing and evaluate how it enables companies like Apple reach their goals. (hint: benefits of internal marketing)

End of Assessment B207B/ THE-Final- Version B 3 of 3 2020-2021/Second Shaping Business Opportunities II Relationship marketing Learning outcomes  This reading starts by defining relationship marketing, and considers its benefits and some important related concepts  It then examines different types of relationships, before discussing relationship marketing in business-to-business contexts, for which relationship marketing is regarded as particularly important.  Finally, the reading ends with a consideration of the conditions under which relational and transactional approaches are more suited.

Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Relationship marketing  Relationship marketing is about developing repeat purchases or exchanges with customers over the long-term, rather than merely promoting one-off transactions. These contrasting types of exchange are sometimes referred to as ‘collaborative exchanges’ and ‘discrete exchanges’, respectively.  Relationship marketing represents a shift from a combative to a collaborate mindset between companies and their customers, while simultaneously maintaining an awareness of profit as a driver and recognising that customers vary in their degree of profitability. Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Benefits of relationship marketing  It is more cost-effective to retain than replenish customers  Retaining customers provides profit over the customer lifetime. 

Additional benefits of relationship marketing include:  long-term customers  being able to help improve production and delivery, thereby enhancing the quality of an offering; increased understanding of customers;  less price sensitivity; and greater predictability of outcomes as well as profitability. Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Customer lifetime value/ Equity  One of the ‘fundamental goals’ of relationship marketing is usually said to be ‘maximising the lifetime value of a customer.  The concept of customer lifetime value – ‘the value of the entire stream of purchases a customer makes over a lifetime of patronage focuses on the value of customers rather than the brand.  Customer equity is ‘the sum of the lifetime values of all the firm’s customers, across all the firm’s brands’ Reading

16: Relationship Marketing Customer lifetime value /Equity  Recognising the value of customer equity helps to ensure that the impact of enhancements to products or services to improve customer satisfaction are taken into account when considering the costs of the enhancements.  Product or service enhancements can boost loyalty, especially when they are particularly appealing to heavier users of the brand. Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Customer loyalty  The aim of customer relationship management is ‘to foster loyalty and repeat purchasing  Loyalty not only encourages repeat purchasing but can insulate companies from pressures to lower prices. Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Customer value and customer satisfaction  While customer satisfaction is believed to feed loyalty, the relationships between satisfaction, loyalty and profit are not straightforward.  Customer satisfaction does not guarantee loyalty or customer retention and vice versa.

 Customers may switch brands, vary the brands they purchase or buy a variety of brands.  Buying multiple brands rather than remaining loyal to one is more common Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Service-dominant logic  The two central ideas of S-D logic are:  It reconceptualises marketing as service-for-service exchange (rather than the exchange of goods-for-money or goods-forgoods)  It regards value as being co-created by both parties to an exchange, rather than being created and delivered by only one. Reading 16: Relationship Marketing The axioms of S-D logic  Service is the fundamental basis of exchange  Value is cocreated by multiple actors, always including the beneficiary  All social and economic actors are resource integrators  Value is always uniquely and phenomenologically determined by the beneficiary  Value cocreation is coordinated through actor-generated institutions and institutional arrangements

Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Types of relationship- Dwyer  Dwyer et al. (1987, p. 15) distinguish three types of relationship beyond discrete exchanges:  seller-maintained (an asymmetric relationship)  buyer-maintained (an asymmetric relationship)  bilateral (in which both parties are highly motivated, for example, in business-to-business contexts). Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Types of relationships- Ladder of loyalty Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Types of relationships- Life cycle 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. awareness – recognition by one party that another party is a potential exchange partner exploration – the potential exchange partners consider and conduct a trial exchange expansion – the benefits from exchange and the interdependence of the exchange partners increase commitment – loyalty emerges dissolution – withdrawal or disengagement. Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Business to business relationships  Relationship marketing is seen as particularly important for business-tobusiness relationships because:  they take longer to establish,  are longerlasting,  involve higher switching costs  affect outcomes to a greater extent than for business-to- consumer relationships

Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Relationship states in the dynamic relationship marketing frameworkZhang  The relationship states in the dynamic relationship marketing     framework of Zhang et al. (2016) are characterised according to the levels of four key relationship constructs: commitment – ‘an enduring desire to maintain a valued relationship’. trust – ‘confidence in an exchange partner’s reliability and integrity’ norms – ‘relational norms focus on and reflect the history of interactions between partners’ (Zhang et al., 2016, p. 55) dependence – ‘the extent to which a partner provides valued resources for which there are few alternative sources of supply. Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Drivers affecting strategic decisionmaking Reading 16: Relationship Marketing Internal marketing Internal marketing  Internal marketing is marketing conducted within an organisation to encourage staff ’s identification with the brand and improve their customer oriented behaviour in representing and communicating the brand externally to consumers.

 For a brand identity to be communicated consistently and credibly to external stakeholders, it must be understood an correctly enacted by staff. Reading 17: Internal Marketing Benefits of internal marketing  It helps to promote a coherent brand identity: A deep understanding of the brand and identification with it within an organisation helps staff to convey a coherent brand identity externally. This is particularly important for service organisations which rely heavily on staff ’s behaviour and attitudes for expressing the brand identity.  It provides a focus for staff ’s diverse organisational role and activities: Having a clear understanding of the organisation’s goals and brand helps staff appreciate how their jobs contribute towards them and provides a unifying focus for staff across different functions within the organisation.

Reading 17: Internal Marketing Benefits of internal marketing  It supports relationship building with customers: Person-to- person interactions between customers and staff are better able to build relationships and stimulate loyalty than are person-toorganisation interactions.  It enables staff to feed back information to the organisation and contribute ideas to improve customer-orientation: Frontline staff can be valuable sources of information about consumers and competitors and help organisations to address consumers’ needs more successfully. They can also play a vital role in collecting customer feedback data that can be used to turn customer detractors into promoters of an organisation or brand.

Reading 17: Internal Marketing The role and impact of staff  The relationship between staff and consumers is at the ‘heart of the brand experience’ with staff behaviour key to creating value.  Consumer-facing staff represent the brand to consumers and affect how they perceive it.  Also other staff might not have frontline roles can also influence perceptions of their organisation’s brand in technology-mediated organizations.  For example, the ease with which you might engage with a retail brand’s online ordering system or an airline’s automated check-in and bag drop system at an airport. Reading 17: Internal Marketing The role and impact of staff  Small changes can improve the service or save costs can lead to a virtuous or vicious circle, having (respectively) either a positive or negative impact on perceptions of the brand by both customers and staff  For example, a jeweller might offer free gift wrapping to customers, which increases the value they receive and their gratitude to staff, which in turn makes staff feel appreciated and increases their job satisfaction, creating a virtuous circle.

Reading 17: Internal Marketing The role and impact of staff  Achieving a strong customer-focus and consistent brand portrayal throughout an organisation also involves hiring suitable staff whose values align with those of the organisation.  This highlights again the importance of integration of functions, as the human resources function is important in recruiting employees who fit the role and the brand’s or organisation’s values. Reading 17: Internal Marketing The role and impact of staff  Marketing also needs to work with human resources and other organisational functions to motivate and inspire staff to provide excellent customer service.  They have to believe in the brand to be able to deliver the brand’s promise authentically to customers.  As with relationship marketing it is often more cost effective to retain experienced and committed staff than constantly replacing them.

Reading 17: Internal Marketing Internal marketing communication  The better informed and aligned staff are with their employer’s brand, the more likely they are to respond in the brand’s best interests.  The need for two-way communication in internal marketing has long been recognised.  A lack of clarity among frontline employees about their roles and responsibilities can deter them from undertaking any type of discretionary behaviour.  Effective internal marketing also facilitates innovation through feeding back staff ’s experience and expertise to improve customer service and the organisation’s offering and operations.

Reading 17: Internal Marketing Internal communication  Welch and Jackson see the interrelated dimensions as corresponding to the following four levels of internal communication:  Line management communication – relating to the management of daily activities.  Internal team peer communication – relating to discussion of team tasks.  Internal project peer communication – relating to the achievement of project goals.  Internal corporate communication – relating to building employee engagement.

Reading 17: Internal Marketing Unfair customers  Staff also need appropriate support from management.  You are most likely familiar with the mantra ‘the customer is always right’ and although the sentiment behind it reflects the importance of being customer-focused.  But there are occasions when a customer may be unreasonable, abusive or plain wrong. Reading 17: Internal Marketing Unfair customers  The following types of unfair cusomters:  Verbal abusers  Blamers  Rule breakers  Rule makers  Opportunists  returnaholics Reading 17: Internal Marketing Unfair customers  Recommendations for dealing with unfair customers. included:  dealing ‘fairly but firmly’ with unfair customers  encouraging managers to intervene to deal with unfair customers when necessary  planning in advance by identifying situations in which unfair customer behaviour might arise  training both frontline staff and managers how best to prevent, manage and communicate with unfair customers  using explanations as a communication strategy (which helps reduce  negative outcomes but might not always work with unfair customers)  terminating relationships with unfair customers if necessary. Reading 17: Internal Marketing Types of employees  Brand champions are the ones who will enthuse colleagues and consumers about the brand.

Many are likely to have been with the organisation for a long time, but long service does not guarantee this level of commitment.  Brand agnostics are employees who are interested but not committed. The organisation’s goal should be to try to convert this group into becoming brand champions.  Brand cynics are not convinced by the brand concept and will be hard to convert.  Brand saboteurs actively work against the brand. Reading 17: Internal Marketing Shaping Business Opportunities II Empower workers to bridge the CEO pay gap by themselves Talent show  The focus of managers from long-term productive investments shifted to short-term profitability that increases shareholder value.  The pressing question is: how can we possibly fix the widening pay gap?  There are some emerging remedies in response to public concerns. The Dodd–Frank ‘Wall Street Reform’ in the US required that: – listed companies publicize the CEO-worker pay-gap ratios in the hope that this might alert shareholders and investors if they are overpaying. – Opponents raise the argument that restricting CEO pay might limit options in the global ‘war for talent’.

But these concerns are exaggerated, there’s plenty of ‘talent’ available under conditions of high unemployment very few companies have disclosed their ratios Reading 10: Empower workers to bridge the CEO pay gap by themselves Shareholder power?  Shareholders may have good reasons to put a lid on CEO pay.  A recent report from the London-based High Pay Centre suggests that unequal workplaces suffer more industrial disputes, more work-related stress and higher staff turnover than more equitable employers. This is certainly not surprising, since large disparities in pay are likely to undermine the feelings of distributive justice, and eventually undermine company performance. Reading 10: Empower workers to bridge the CEO pay gap by themselves Empowering workers  Although shareholders may be interested in avoiding excess, at the end of the day, those who are affected by …

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